Search

Calmare NJ USA

Category

Chronic pain syndrome

Pain Warriors Make Friends at Calmare Therapy NJ USA

new treatment for chronic pain

August 8, 2019

It’s been mighty quiet around here since these two CRPS warriors left the building.

Laurie, left, from the west coast, was here for Calmare booster treatments and met new patient Megan from Calgary, who treated after her each day.

So great when our patients can meet others waging the same war.

We just wanted to remind any readers who visit our site that there are other people in the world fighting the same war.

Don’t give up hope finding pain relief.

Keep reading, keep calling.

Find a group of like-minded warriors.

Most importantly, remember that you are never alone in this battle.


To find out if Calmare scrambler therapy may be a via pain management solution to defeat your medication or treatment-resistant chronic pain, call our New Jersey clinic, located 15 minutes outside New York City, at 201-933-4440 to speak with our clinical director about your medical history and your case.

If you prefer to email us, reach out privately at info@calmaretherapynj.com.

 

 

Featured post

CRPS Warrior Details Her Calmare Therapy Experience

May 3, 2019

crps pain treatment

We were delighted to receive this post-treatment update from our 47-year old female patient who battled complex regional pain syndrome after an injury to her foot in 2017.

Deryn was prescribed a battery of prescription pain medications, ranging from Cymbalta to Gabapentin, which she relied on to achieve (restricted) function of her leg and foot.

Virginia Woman Recounts Her Post-Calmare Treatment Pain Relief

“I received your email last week about your 9-year anniversary treating patients with Calmare Therapy. I just wanted to share with you that I am yet another one of your success stories and so happy to share this with you!

I came to you last April to reduce my pain from CRPS from a minor foot injury.

After:

  • Going to physical therapy 2-3 times a week for a year
  • Receiving 18 nerve blocks (1 of which caused a seizure)
  • Trying numerous medical laser treatments
  • Attempting hypnosis from a psychologist
  • Visiting many different doctors
  • Taking a plethora of pain management medications with many awful side effects

I ultimately reduced my pain from a 10/10 to about a 6 or 7/10 on the pain scale.

I had previously been on crutches and unable to walk independently due to severe pain and muscle atrophy, but these assorted treatments allowed me to walk again.

Traditional Chronic Pain Medications & Therapies Fail

However, I was still not functioning well due to extreme pain and could not bear weight for any extended period of time.

My husband and I were always researching CRPS and various treatment methods. He had come across Calmare Therapy, but I was skeptical and hesitant to try it.

After we felt like we had exhausted all options, we realized this was something worth trying.

We were fortunate to get our health insurance to cover the treatment as in-network since it was not offered anywhere in our geographic region.

Waiting for the Pain Medications to Loosen Their Grip

After two weeks of scrambler therapy, I did have some pain relief, but was a little disappointed because I did not see nearly as much improvement in my pain compared to other patients I met while I was there.

However, I was also still weaning off all the pain medications (and also very sick from that) which may have interfered with the full effectiveness of the treatment.

But once I returned home, the success of the treatment became more apparent as time went by–

About two weeks later,  I felt significant improvement. I was very pleased because I realized that my pain had decreased AND I was off all my medications.

Calmare Booster Therapy Further Reduces Pain Level

In July I decided to return for a week of Calmare booster treatments, as I realized that it probably would work better now that I was fully off the medications.

Once again, about two weeks after returning home, the pain continued to decrease.

As the months have gone by, I continued to see significant gradual improvements.

A year later, I now fluctuate between a 0-2 on the pain scale and sometimes even have full days of no pain!

I feel so fortunate to have found you and your practice and can’t even express in words how appreciative I am to have come to you for help!

You and your staff were very supportive and experienced.

Like so many of your other patients, you have given me a much higher quality of life!

THANK YOU and keep up the great work in the chronic pain community.

With deepest gratitude,

Deryn Feria”

Featured post

Calmare Therapy: Opioid-Free Neuropathic Pain Relief

calmare scrambler therapy patients

April 24, 2019

2019 Scrambler Therapy Pain Management Update

By Dr. Michael Cooney, Clinical Director, Calmare Therapy NJ USA

In 2010, as I obtained the professional training to use the Calmare MC-5A device, I grew more excited about using technology to deliver pain relief to my patients without the need for any prescription drugs.

Nine years later, I’d like to offer an update about the progress we have made helping people reduce or even eliminate treatment- and medication-resistant chronic pain.

Those of us who work in pain management were not surprised to see the eventual explosion of the opioid crisis.  My healthcare specialty as a doctor of chiropractic requires using drug-free techniques to minimize and eliminate pain.

Calmare scrambler is a remarkable pain management therapy for several reasons, including the fact that it can be used to combat several types of chronic nerve pain (neuropathy), including chemotherapy treatments (CIPN), Shingles (PHN), diabetes, post-surgical pain and unexplained nerve pain.

How Calmare Can Lessen Severe Pain for CRPS Sufferers

What I did not foresee was the vast community of CRPS sufferers who had tried a myriad of medications, painful procedures, surgeries, treatments– and were still left with debilitating pain.

I’m often asked why scrambler therapy is one treatment that can significantly reduce CRPS pain and physical symptoms:

  • Allodynia
  • Skin lesions that will not close/heal
  • Hair loss
  • Skin discoloration

After treating more than 1,000 patients, over the past nine years, it is apparent to me that CRPS /RSD is a unique communication between local skin tissue and the pain center of the brain.

How Calmare Therapy Works

The Calmare MC-5A device scrambles this misfiring pain message/signal–which says there is pain—when, in fact, there is not.

After the technology scrambles this misfiring message over a series of daily treatments for a period of two weeks, in most cases, the brain’s misfiring message ceases and pain is eliminated.

Using several small electrodes (think EKG) carefully placed in the region of the injury, the technology sends a mild and painless “no pain” message to the brain through the electrodes.

Essentially, the scrambler machine “overrides” the brain’s confused message and corrects it to the ‘no pain here” message.

Keep in mind, the brain can send this faulty pain message to any region of the body—even a location which never sustained any kind of injury.

There is, in fact, no physiological reason for the pain.

As a comparison, phantom limb pain can result when a person who has undergone an amputation still feels significant pain in the part of the body which has been amputated.

Calmare is a ‘Provider-Dependent’ pain therapy.

Therefore, it is essential to confirm your provider’s expertise

and measurable success treatment your type of neuropathy.

Calmare Clinical Trial Success: Mayo Clinic

Dr. Charles L. Loprinzi, who was interviewed in January 2016 after leading his own successful Calmare clinical trial for the Mayo Clinic, explains,

TENS (a self-administered tens unit) is thought to work through the gateway theory of temporary pain relief, whereby normal touch sensations blocks pain sensations.

But scrambler therapy, on the other hand, provides ‘no-pain’ electrical information via nerves which have received transmissions of chronic pain information.”

Dr. Loprinzi said that through a process called ‘plasticity,’ the brain is ‘retrained’ and will no longer register a pain sensation in the affected area.

To date, there are at least 20 published reports on scrambler therapy that included results involving close to 1,000 patients in total.

These reports include clinical practice summaries, prospective non-randomized clinical trials and randomized controlled trials, including two trials that sought to double-blind patients and investigators.

Mayo Clinic Calmare Trial Patient Story: “Side-Lined No More”

Post-Clinical Trial Interview with Dr. Loprinzi

Calmare Case Studies

pain management patients

With patients’ permission, we regularly share their outcomes on our website. I’d like to share a few of our successful patient outcomes in the past year:

Peter Hinninger – New Jersey, USA

CRPS for 17 Years

For 17 long years, Peter tried every medication and every treatment, including a spinal cord stimulator (neuromodulation or SCS) to lessen his chronic pain.

Still, his pain level hovered around a consistent 7-8 on the Pain Scale.

After the completion of the standard 10-treatment therapy, we both teared up when he realized he was pain-free for the first time in more than a decade.

Peter and his long-time partner co-wrote a book detailing his Calmare Therapy treatment experience.

 

 

pediatric chronic pain patient
Cara adds a pin to Scotland on the Calmare patient map. (April 2018)

Cara – Scotland

Pediatric CRPS

Young teenager Cara from the UK underwent several therapies and pain management medications to lessen her neuropathy. She was still left in pain throughout much of her body.

Ultimately, her family elected to seek an alternative medicine solution and chose to cross the pond to the U.S. so that Cara could be treated by our Calmare New Jersey team.

I’m delighted to report she sustained a terrific outcome. Best of all, she left smiling with her pain level down to a 1/10.

She and her mother tell her story here: https://calmaretherapynj.com/calmare-patient-testimonial/cara-scotland-pediatric-crps/

Tonya Schuler – West Virginia, USA

CRPS after Carpal Tunnel Surgery

“When my pain management doctor told me a spinal cord stimulator (SCS) was the final treatment option, I knew I had to take matters into my own hands and reach out to the chronic pain community for a less invasive option,” Tonya explains.

After her routine hand and wrist surgery, the chronic pain started in one hand and soon spread to the other. As the condition worsened, the chronic nerve pain spread to her neck, back and stomach.

Tonya tells her personal story after undergoing Calmare Therapy:

Hope, Fortitude, Tenacity, Sheer Determination

You can read or watch more of our patient stories, most of whom arrived at our clinic bearing the weight of daily pain that made work, school–even socializing or taking a walk in the park–impossible.

They courageously tried invasive pain relief procedures and side-effect-laden painkillers and opioids without success, up to the day they arrived at our clinic.

Not surprisingly, many new patients arrive at our clinic skeptical and dejected.

Who could blame them?

But they all had one key attribute that remained steadfast–regardless of all the treatment disappointments.

Hope.

And we were honored that they mustered the remarkable fortitude to try (one more time) to mitigate their pain and regain their quality of life.

Providing Pain Relief to Children, Teens, Adults and Seniors

Eight years after introducing scrambler therapy to our clinic, I have treated children, teens, parents, and grandparents, most of whom are living pain levels from 8-10 every day.

In 2019, Calmare is now the only pain relief therapy we offer here in our NJ clinic.

After 10 daily treatment sessions, lasting about 35-minutes each, more than seven in 10 patients achieve a pain-free state or a reduction in pain to the degree that enables them to resume a pleasurable quality of life.

Why do 30 percent not achieve pain relief?

Sometimes they have additional health issues which interfere with treatment, sometimes they are non-compliant after therapy, and sometimes we just don’t know why Calmare did not lessen their pain, unfortunately.

In this era of failed opioid pain relief and increasing difficulty obtaining medication for chronic pain, people in pain are seeking drug-free options to lessen pain.

Nine years since first introducing Calmare scrambler therapy, I have never felt more assured that this treatment can dramatically elevate the quality of life for people living with chronic pain.

Dr. Michael Cooney is one of seven certified Calmare providers in the U.S. His clinic is located just outside New York City. He is a professionally certified chiropractor who has been treating severe acute and chronic pain conditions for more than 35 years.

After introducing Calmare Therapy in 2011, he soon began helping people with treatment-resistant neuropathy from as far away as South America, South Africa, Australia and Europe.

Dr. Cooney offers complimentary phone or video chat consultations with people from outside the U.S. To learn more, visit www.calmaretherapynj.com email info@calmaretherapynj.com or call 201.933.4440.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Featured post

CLINICAL TRIAL: Arachnoiditis Nerve Pain Relief

April 12, 2019

2019 CLINICAL TRIAL – DIAGNOSED ARACHNOIDITIS PATIENTS

Study

Calmare Therapy NJ USA (Scrambler Therapy) to Treat Diagnosed Cases of Arachnoiditis to Reduce Chronic Neuropathic Pain Symptoms

Phase

Pilot

What is Arachnoiditis?

Arachnoiditis is a chronic pain disorder caused by the inflammation of the arachnoid membrane and subarachnoid space that surround the nerves of the spinal cord. The inflammation can cause the meninges to adhere to the spinal cord and nerve roots.

Because the nerve roots are affected, symptoms such as numbness, tingling, and burning pain are often felt in the lower back or legs.

Severe cases of arachnoiditis can result in the loss of motor function, loss of bladder and bowel control and even paralysis.

Arachnoiditis can arise from infection, direct spinal injury, and chronic compression of the spinal nerves or invasive spinal surgeries.

Study Conducted by

Dr. Michael J. Cooney
Calmare Therapy NJ USA

Location

Rutherford, NJ (10 miles from New York City)

Study Start Date

May 13 – 24, 2019

Details

Calmare Therapy NJ USA is one of only seven Calmare Certified providers of scrambler therapy, an FDA-cleared, non-invasive, pain-free, drug-free technology to treat patients suffering from several types of long-term, high-intensity pain.

Scope of May 2019 Calmare Study

We are conducting a free, 10-treatment (one 35-minute daily therapy session) clinical trial study for pre-qualified patients suffering from diagnosed Arachnoiditis to determine the efficacy of scrambler therapy as a viable treatment solution for condition-induced neuropathy.

Eligibility Criteria

Pre-approved study patients must be available to undergo a protocol of 10 treatments once per day. There is no charge for the series of 10 treatments.

Travel, daily transportation, meals and accommodations are not covered for this trial

Informed Consent

People who agree to take part in the study are asked to sign an Informed Consent Form. However, signing the form does not mean approved trial participants must stay in the study for the duration. Volunteer participants can leave the study at any time—either before the study starts or at any time during the study or the follow-up period.

The informed consent process continues throughout the study. If new benefits, risks, or side effects are discovered during the study, clinical trial researchers will; inform the participants.

To Apply  |  Contact Us  |  For More Information

To find out more and determine if you qualify for the no-cost study, please contact for a phone consultation or email us at info@calmaretherapynj.com

Dr. Michael Cooney
Clinical Director
Calmare Therapy NJ USA
(201) 933.4440 | calmaretherapynj.com

 

Featured post

Pets are Welcome at Calmare Therapy NJ USA

February 10, 2019

pet therapy for chronic pain

By Dr. Michael Cooney, Clinical Director

Gina, who has been treating with us for post-surgical neuropathy, swears her little dog helps lessen stress and lower her pain level.

And I agree 100%.

If bringing your pet to your Calmare treatments makes you feel better, bring him or her along!

READ: “How Pets Can Help Lessen Chronic Pain” (Everyday Health)

We don’t operate like other pain management clinics,

never have, never will.

Bring your pet.

If you are living with treatment-resistant chronic pain, consider an alternative medicine therapy, such as Calmare scrambler therapy.

For more than a decade, Calmare has been FDA-cleared, has no side effects and is painless to undergo.

Best of all, there are no opioids, prescription drugs or any medications at all connected with undergoing Calmare.

READ: How Does Scrambler Therapy Work?

This can be particularly helpful to people who have been reliant upon prescription medication for a prolonged period of time and who may benefit from a drug-free pain therapy alternative.

Chronic pain puts too many good people–from children to seniors–on the sidelines of living.

I believe so strongly in the healing power of scrambler therapy, I use this technology exclusively to treat various types of neuropathy, in varying degrees of severity.

We invite you to reach out and let’s discuss if Calmare can help you or a loved one finally defeat the monster we call pain.

Call (201) 933-4440 or email us privately about your case at info@calmaretherapynj.com.

I’ll talk to you soon.

Doc

 

Featured post

Non-Invasive Therapy for Treatment-Resistant Sciatica and Back Pain

November 8, 2018

Mari Ramos_back leadsCalmare scrambler therapy is an exciting drug-free alternative to combat nerve damage as a result of medication and treatment-resistant sciatica or lumbar nerve damage.

Calmare uses biophysical “scrambler” technology, a treatment for nerve pain that uses electrodes placed on the skin.

How the Calmare MC-5A technology can significantly lessen treatment-resistant lumbar and sciatica neuropathy

Our device reduces sciatic and spinal neuropathy by creating an artificial neuron that retrains the brain by sending a ‘no-pain’ signal along the sciatic root to the brain.

It’s key to understand the distinction between

a sciatic/lumber neuritis and a sciatic/lumbar neuropathy.

The neuropathy (chronic pain) is constant; the pain may vary from low to high, but the discomfort never goes away completely. This chronic, never-ending nerve pain is the root cause that scrambler therapy can relieve.

Conversely, a sciatic/lumbar neuritis is usually a structural or biomechanical problem, such as a pinched nerve or ligament damage. These types of conditions should be treated by chiropractors or physical therapists who specialize in the treatment of musculoskeletal injuries.

Via small electrodes strategically positioned by a specially-trained doctor, a ‘no-pain’ message is transmitted directly to the nerve for a period of approximately 35 minutes per session.

Regardless of severity, pain and physical symptoms caused by the neuropathic condition can be significantly reduced-or even alleviated-by the conclusion of the 10-treatment series.

The cause of chronic sciatica or back pain may be a result of injury, failed back surgery or generalized aging of bones and joints.

Double-Blind Clinical Study Finds Decreased Low Back Pain Following Calmare Therapy

For severe cases of neuropathic pain, subsequent Calmare booster treatments are sometimes, but not always, necessary for patients who have lived with the chronic pain condition for an extended period of time before undergoing Calmare Therapy treatment.

Calmare scrambler therapy benefits
  • Proven successful in the treatment of neuropathic pain by leading oncologic studies 
  • FDA-cleared 510(k)-cleared and European CE mark-certified
  • Pain-free
  • Non-invasive
  • Drug-free
  • No side effects

People with treatment and medication-resistant neuropathy describe their outcomes after Calmare Therapy

Will Calmare work for my back pain?

First, let us be perfectly clear—while this non-invasive therapy has been successful for more than 75 percent of our patients with chronic nerve pain, it does not significantly reduce or eliminate pain or everyone, unfortunately.

We have seen marked success (pain reduction or remission) for children, teens, adults and seniors battling these neuropathic pain conditions:

  • Back Pain
  • Sciatica
  • Neck Pain
  • Foot Pain
  • Failed Back Surgery Syndrome
  • Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
  • Chemotherapy associated Cancer Pain – CIPN
  • Complex Regional Pain Syndrome – CRPS
  • Fibromyalgia
  • Neuropathic Pain/Neuropathy – General
  • Phantom Limb Syndrome
  • Post Shingles Pain – PHN
  • Pudendal (Gynecologic) Pain

Calmare is a ‘provider dependent therapy. Is your doctor Calmare Certified?

When will my pain level start to decrease?

In most cases, we see by treatment 3-4 if a patient’s neuropathy will be significantly minimized or a pain-free state can be achieved. Many patients experience pain relief as early as 10 minutes into their first treatment session. As the number of treatment sessions increases, the duration of pain relief is prolonged.

What if my pain comes back?

Depending on the severity of the original condition and the length of time the patient has been experiencing chronic pain, periodic booster treatments may be required to combat any return of pain.

Is Calmare technology comparable to a TENS unit?

No. The Calmare® MC-5A device creates a low energy electrical impulse which travels through the patient’s nerves delivering a “no-pain” signal to the brain.

This scrambles (disrupts) the brain’s misfiring pain signal that the area of pain is normal and eventually results in prolonged pain relief.

TENS units are self-use devices that can temporarily lessen pain but when discontinued provide no lasting pain resolution.

To find out if your chronic back pain or sciatic condition may be suitable for Calmare therapy, contact us using the form below or call 201-933-4440 and Dr. Michael Cooney will speak with you directly about your chronic pain challenge.

 

 

Featured post

Meet 30 Calmare Therapy NJ Patients on YouTube

October 23, 2018

By Dr. Michael Cooney, Clinical Director, Calmare Therapy NJ USA

Most people who visit our website are already frustrated with the medical community.

They or a loved one are in pain.

Pain medication is not pain management, they have learned firsthand.

But a myriad of painful procedures, surgery and implanted devices have also failed to do their jobs.

Then what?

From unexplained neuropathy after surgery to diabetic neuropathy or pain after chemotherapy , too many people are left with unresolved neuropathy.

And they continue to lead debilitated lives, so unfairly.

I came to this conclusion years ago, which is what compelled me to launch Calmare scrambler, an FDA-cleared alternative therapy here in New Jersey in 2011.

Mayo Clinic Researchers Test Scrambler Therapy for Pain

It has no side effects, is painless to undergo. It’s drug-free. The worst case scenario is that the treatment does not work, which happens.

But in more than 75% of the patients we treat, their pain is significantly reduced–or eliminated.

Watch and listen to the patients for whom we have relieved severe chronic pain over the years–

From 10-year-old children to seniors who had battled neuropathy for decades, you will discover someone who has fought the same battle with pain that you do.

Then, we hope you’ll reach out via the contact form below, by emailing us at calmarenj@gmail.com or calling our clinic at (201) 933-4440.

Only Calmare Therapy NJ USA Supports Calmare with Diagnostic BrainSpan

Don’t give up. Keep fighting. The solution to your pain is close at hand.

https://www.youtube.com/user/CalmareTherapyNJ/videos

 

Featured post

Ten Tips to Prepare for Your Calmare Therapy

October 10, 2018

By Dr. Michael J. Cooney, Clinical Director, Calmare Therapy New Jersey 

ID-10053921
Our tools to get ready for your Calmare treatments will lessen stress and prepare you for success.

Before the end of the year,  we will be welcoming many new patients to Calmare Therapy here in New Jersey who are traveling here from nearby New Jersey to as far away as South America, Sweden, South Africa and Australia.

I thought it would be a good time to recap how patients and families can optimally prepare for their upcoming scrambler therapy sessions.

Patients generally treat for a minimum of 10 sessions, one per business day, lasting about 35 minutes, on average.

How to Prepare for Your Calmare Therapy:
  1. Fill out your New Patient Forms in advance. Forward them to us by fax (201-933-8159) or scan and email to calmarenj@gmail.com .
  2. Send or bring along any objective tests ( X-rays, EEG, MRI, EMG or cat scans) for our pre-treatment study).
  3. Wean off as many medications (i.e. anticonvulsants and antidepressants) as possible, working in partnership with your prescribing doctor/s. (Note: Each patient case is different. Well in advance, we’ll talk specifically about your specific medication protocol and how to safely and effectively prepare).
  4. Refrain from using skin lotions or oils 24-hours before each treatment.
  5. Dress in loose, comfortable clothing and bring some entertainment to occupy you during each treatment.
  6. Consider keeping a journal about your experience and discuss how you feel each day during therapy.
  7. Make hotel reservations well in advance. We provide a list of lodging options which have received high marks from patients. (We don’t recommend using Airbnb or other sub-rental accommodations due to quality unreliability).
  8. Focus on nutrition and hydration. We understand your high level of pain may stymie appetite and water intake. But by building up your metabolism and fueling your body with hydration, you are setting a course for an optimal treatment outcome.
  9. Find ways to help relax your mind and body. Traveling is challenging even when you feel great–it can be exhausting and painful when you are battling pain. Gather items of comfort–slippers, pillows, scented items and keep them in a handy bag on the plane or in the car with you.
  10. Don’t be nervous!  The treatments are non-invasive and have no side effects.

CalmareWe are a positive and spirited team who will make you feel as comfortable as possible from your first visit to your last.

Our collective goal is to lessen your chronic nerve pain and eliminate a need for pharmaceuticals painkillers or invasive pain management treatments.

Every patient’s case is unique. If you have questions or concerns, reach out to us anytime and we’ll reply within 24-48 hours of your contact.

We look forward to meeting you soon!

Email us at CalmareNJ@gmail.com or call 201.933.4440.

Featured post

Lauren Writes Letter of Thanks for Her Husband’s Calmare Therapy

May 29, 2018

Robert Vaughn adds his pin to the Calmare NJ USA patient map. May 2018

We were honored to receive this email message from Lauren Vaughn at the conclusion of her husband’s two-week Calmare protocol for CRPS (diagnosed in 2013). The couple generously permitted us to share it below.

“As we approach our last day with you, I wanted to send my sincere thank you!

It has been such a positive experience for my husband and myself! We have seen so much progress!

To see Robert live with 8 or 9 out of a scale of 10 pain level for the past 5+ years has been difficult, to say the least!

You have given us hope for the future!

Within the past two weeks we have observed his pain level decrease to a 3 out of 10! Unbelievable!

Not only is the treatment amazing, but Dr. Cooney and the staff have been such a joy to work with!

From the bottom of our hearts we will be forever grateful!

Thank you for giving our family hope again! Thank you again for your amazing partnership in Robert’s treatment and recovery.”

Quality of life is a gift that few can give and you have certainly given us that back!

Lauren Vaughn

(Robert Vaughn’s wife)
Would you like to discuss an alternative therapy for your treatment-resistant chronic pain that is opioid-free?

First, check out our pages here that describe the Calmare treatment.

Then watch videos of some of our patients who have undergone scrambler therapy.

https://www.youtube.com/user/CalmareTherapyNJ/videos

Fill out the info card below, and we’ll reach out to you at a convenient time for you to chat.

Call our friendly Calmare team at (201) 933-4440 or email us at CalmareNJ@gmail.com and we’ll reply within 48 hours.

 

 

Blog at WordPress.com.

Up ↑

%d bloggers like this: